The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos (Black Sea).

Hellenic News of America
June 6 2004

The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos (Black Sea).

Professor Konstantinos Fotiadis (2004).
The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos (Black Sea).
Athens: Editions of Institution of Parliament of Greeks for the
Parliamentarism and the Democracy, p.600 + photographs.

Presentation by Theofanis Malkidis Ph.D
Demokritus University of Thrace

1. A owed action of debt
The investigation of genocide of Greeks of Pontos (Black Sea) from
the Young Turks and Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) arrangement constituted a
question taboo for the Greek historical and political science. The
Greek-Turkish pact of friendship 1930, the simultaneous integration
of Greece and Turkey in the NATO in 1952, but also simultaneously the
called approach of two states, constituted points stations (and) for
the Pontian question. They are these parameters “that the Genocide of
Hellenism of Pontos did not acquire the compurgation that it was
imposed it acquires “, as stresses the writer in his import.
On one side because the political climate did not allow is
investigated the crime of mass murders of against Greeks, on the
other side when this became after initiative of scientists and
intellectual as minimal debt against the collective memory, faced a
very hostile environment.
However after fights and efforts of many years from Pont’s
inhabitants of second generation and associations of interior and
abroad, the Greek parliament recognized in 1994 the genocide of
Greeks of Pontos, establishing him 19 May as day of memory and price.
The law on the recognition of mass crime was from an alone him
station in the newer Greek history, that more precious perhaps it had
it offers the Hellenic state to the victims of liquidation from the
historical homeland and to their descendants, the refugees that
reached poor in Greece and nevertheless contributed in the Greek
politician, economic, social and cultural life.
The recognition of genocide by the Parliament of Greeks had a lot of
components and other so much priorities. The protection of the 19 th
May as day of memory of genocide of Greeks of Pontos, “action of duty
to the history and action of responsibility opposite in the newer
generations of Greeks”, her internationalisation in all the levels
(recognition from Turkey, the trespass of rights Pontians that lives
in Turkey and particularly in their place of existence in the
Pontos), the installation of Native of the Pont refugees from the
former Soviet Union in Greece, the documentation of genocide.
For reasons that are known and comprehensible as we reported more and
are connected with interests foreigner with the memory and the real
friendship between the populations the decision of national
delegation on the publication of documents genocide of Greeks of
Pontos, was not materialised immediately. Thus they passed 10 entire
years until the Greek Parliament publishes the book of professor
Konstantinos Fotiadis, which argued the murders of 353000 Greeks in
the Pontos the interval 1916-1923.
The book is separated in 13 chapters which cover the history of
Greeks of Pontos, the ethnological situation in the region, the
Ottoman reforms and the Young Turks arrangement, that was turned
against the Greeks (and the Armenian), program of Mustafa Kemal
arrangement for the crimes in the Pontos. The book includes primary
sources, the result of research of writer in government and owned
files of former USSR, France, Germany, Great Britain, Austria, Italy,
Vatican, Society of Nations and Greece, while is mentioned also rich
bibliography in Greek and other languages.

2.The crime
The genocide of Pont’s inhabitants (1916 – 1923) with above 353.000
victims, constitutes a big genocide the 20 th century The term
genocide as it was shaped afterwards the end of second world war,
means the methodical extermination, total or partial, national,
racial or religious team and it is a primary crime, that does not
have interrelation with martial conflicts.
The partial or total annihilation national, racial or religious team
raises, accordingly to the article of 1 special Convention, which has
voted the General Assembly of UN in 1948 in the crime of genocide,
that is different from the crimes of war, after «it does not only
force the martial rules, but the himself it constitutes crime at the
humanity, provided that it refers in concrete individuals or nation,
but concerns entire the humanity “.
Thus the genocide constitutes the heavier crime according to the
international right, for which in deed does not exist prescription.
The one which commits the genocide does not exterminate a team for
something that e you do, but for something that is, s the case of
Greeks of Pontos, because they were Greeks and Christians.
The 19 May 1919 date the arrival of s Moustafa Kemal in the
Samsounta, is the beginning for the second and harder phase of
Genocide. The terrorism, the working battalions, the exiles, the
obliteration of leadership in the Amasia in 1921 , the rapes, the
mass murders, forced the Greeks of Pontos to abandon their homes and
leave after courses, in Greece, in the USSR, Iran, Syria, and
elsewhere (Australia, USA) or as means of self-defence is undertaken
resistance action against the organised drawing of extermination. He
has become henceforth today perceptible that t a victims of genocide
would be very more, if did not exist the guerrilla movement. The
conclusion of Pontian genocide it constitutes violent liquidation
surviving afterwards 1922 -1923.

3. The importance of publication
The recognition of genocide of Greeks of Pontos and the publication
of author’s work of Mr Fwtja’di from the Parliament of Greeks despite
the delay it vindicated Hellenism of Pontos and connected the modern
Hellenism with his past via the collective memory, that is to say
truth. The particular publication of professor Fotiadis is henceforth
a basic element of memory and « it rests with in the Parliament of
Greeks it transmits in the parliaments other countries her intention
to render her respectable memory that of Genocide “. Hellenism of
Pontos is a big and important part of Greek nation and it is not
possible to be ignored from the State and the Greek society. The
safeguarding and the further appointment and internationalisation of
day memory of genocide, which exceeds the Hellenism of Pontos and
penetrate all the Greek society, it constitutes main constitutive
element of institutions and society that are defended the history and
truth. And as lead the bigger, perhaps, Pontian writer, Dimitris
Psathas “it is not allowed we sacrifice the historical truth in no
expediency, as unfortunately, it was established it becomes from the
time that was engraved the said Greek-Turkish friendship. The non
critical silence of makes of History, he was perhaps also one from
their reason s that so much bad headed the ‘ friendship ‘ with Turks.
Throw the veil of oblivion in the past, but dry with, no we hide.
Know also same the Turks what they made their parents, in order to
they avoid what they stigmatised them in the same time who want they
take the place between the civilized nations. Only knowing Turks and
knowing those us and their stigmatised past, can sometimes engrave a
Greek-Turkish friendship on solid bases “.

Destexhe, A., Rwanda and genocide in the Twentieth Century, New York:
New York University Press. 1996, p. 2
Fotiadis, op. cit. Capital I Martyrology 1921, p. 365-419.
Âë. ÖùôéÜäçò, Ê. op.cit. Chapter ÉC¨ p. 457.
Fotiadis, K. op. cit. p.17.
Psathas D. (1953) Ground of Pontos, Athens: Editions of Estia p. 8.