ArmeniaNow-July 242009

Administration Address: 26 Parpetsi St., No 9
Phone: +(374 1) 532422
Email: [email protected]
Technical Assistance: (For technical assistance please contact Babken
Email: [email protected]

*************************** *************************************************

July 24, 2009

1. Performance Test: Armenia needs a team effort off the pitch**

2.** Cyber Wars: Experts say Armenia IT sector vulnerable to attack

3. **Former President, New Job: Will Kocharyan be content as a

**4.** Bones and Backbones: A history of Azokh, from caves to
politics, from **paleontology to resolution**

5. Changing Landscape and Attitudes: ATP celebrates 15 years of
success on Armenia’s rough soil**

6.** **Letter Home: A Diaspora discovers Armenia and `Armenianness’

7. Sport: Armenia soccer clubs out of European tournaments

*********************************** ***************************************
1. Performance Test: Armenia needs a team effort off the pitch

A week before Armenia shuts down for summer holiday there is an air of
anticipation here that is less about relaxing than about the crucial
condition of regional relations.

When heads of government return to their posts in September, they will have
about six weeks to convince constituents and outsiders that they have a
workable plan for peace between Karabakh and Azerbaijan, and harmony between
Armenia and Turkey.

Let us hope leadership gets lots of rest during the annual holiday. Their
task is monumental.

When (if, as plans have not been formalized) President Serzh Sargsyan and
his Turkish counterpart Abdullah Gul meet for `Football Diplomacy II’ around
October 14, their meeting could signal the most significant period of change
in independent Armenia’s history.

Or, failing to find common ground could pour fresh salt in old and deep
wounds and lead to an unraveling of whatever peace is found in the tenuous
Karabakh ceasefire and tightening (if that’s possible) of locked borders
with Azerbaijan and Turkey.

Recent days – indeed, recent years – have been full of hours-long
negotiation from which invariably emerge the refrain of 15 years of hopeful
doubt: `We believe progress has been made . . .’

The October soccer match outcome could be predicted now – not in favor of
Armenia. But the World Cup qualifier is hardly the focus. Rather it is the
life-and-death issues surrounding it that makes sport secondary to the
chance the game offers off the pitch.

Sargysan and Gul’s anticipated meeting in Turkey carries the weight of
expectation that relations will be `normalized’, or that further fractious
disagreement will lead to an eruption of simmering discontent.

Both presidents stand to gain. Making amends with Armenia would look good on
Turkey’s application for European Union membership. Settling the Karabakh
issue to the satisfaction of his citizenry would put Sargsyan on a pedestal
neither of his predecessors achieved.

But only Sargsyan stands to lose, should any agreement with Gul compromise

Oddly, the Armenian president in 2009 faces a similar situation as his
nemesis, Levon Ter-Petrosyan, faced and was undone by, in 1998 (when
Ter-Petrosyan appeared ready to concede regions of Karabakh, in exchange for
a settlement).

The stage for the autumn gamesmanship is being set in Yerevan’s blistering
summer when political debate has heated beyond expectation.

This week saw movement toward a potential new oppositional coalition that
would unite ARF (Dashnaks), Heritage (Raffi Hovanissian) and ANC
(Ter-Petrosyan). A unified platform by the three would surely achieve a more
formidable power than the opposition has seen.

Is should also signal a shift (a diminishing in fact) of Ter-Petrosyan’s
leadership role. The former president is famous for demanding regime change.
Meanwhile, the Dashnaks focus on policy change. Even in resigning from the
Government last April, the Dashnaks did not call for Sargsyan to step down
(as ANC has repeatedly done). Plus, the Dashnak call for the resignation of
Minister of Foreign Affairs Edward Nalbandian last week can be read as a
denouncement of policy rather than personnel.

The middle ground is represented in the Heritage Party (national-liberal)
which, like the Dashnaks (socialists), advocates `national ideology’ and has
demonstrated time and again that it is surely a party of the people.

An alignment of the three parties would strengthen attempts to keep pressure
on President Sargsyan to step carefully while under the strong influence of
his Moscow advisors.

Also in this hot summer, every politico in Armenia and plenty outside has
roared his/her/their voice over speculation of positions that should be more
sharply defined when October gets here.

Meanwhile the impression from Baku is that Azerbaijan’s President Ilham
Aliyev would be disappointed with any outcome except renewing the war in
Karabakh. Short of former US President George W. Bush’s `smoke `em out’
frothing at the mouth (referring to Osama Bin Laden) in 2001, hardly no
president could appear more blood thirsty.

Last week in London the Azeri president said that his country `reserves the
right’ to consider military action against Karabakh, adding that, otherwise,
there would be no incentive for Armenia to pursue peace. Dissected, Aliyev’s
comment says that Armenia is incapable of diplomacy unless it comes with a
threat. Nice. Has anyone pointed out to Aliyev that this discussion would be
irrelevant had his country won the war that led us to this point?

Now is the time to let the air out of patriotic chest puffing. On both
sides. Aliyev’s rhetoric lowers the bar on constructive dialogue. Let us
hope that Armenia’s leadership will show its ability to perform on a higher
plain. Such hope cannot be realized unless there is unity of purpose – a
condition sadly lacking in recent days as Armenia is polarized over `Madrid
Principles’ and `Road Map’ diplomacy, and the usual vagaries that create
division of political ideology.

Let us hope that the August reprieve will return leadership on all sides
that is ready to present a team effort of solidarity when its soccer squad
takes the field for a relatively meaningless match.

****************************************** ********************************
2. Cyber Wars: Experts say Armenia IT sector vulnerable to attack

By Georg Khachaturyan

A cyber security expert has predicted a rise in the number of hacker attacks
against Armenian web resources pointing an accusatory finger at `network
hooligans’ recruited by Azerbaijani special services.

At a press conference Thursday, independent analyst Samvel Martirosyan
further argued that the impact of `cyber terrorism’ on Armenia will become
more appreciable with the country’s development and growing dependence on
information technologies.

`It is one thing in the case with network hooligans, and it is quite a
different thing when Azerbaijani special services use hacker groups,’ said

Martirosyan echoed the widespread concerns and speculations among cyber
experts in Armenia that Azerbaijani special services may have been behind
the recent attacks against several government and media websites in Armenia
resulting in their temporary disruptions.

`It is a serious threat because in the course of time Armenia becomes more
and more dependant on information technologies,’ he said.

The specialist predicted that it wouldn’t necessarily be the government
websites that would become the first-choice soft targets for hackers.

`The vulnerability of the financial sector in the cyber space will carry
far greater impact not only on the state but also on ordinary citizens,’

Meanwhile, speaking at a seminar on cyber security in Armenia, Armenian
Center for National and International Studies Director Richard Giragosian
stressed that cyber security is an important element of the country’s
national security.

`Lately hackers carried out several cyber attacks against Armenian
government and media websites. In fact, we can say that Armenia and
Azerbaijan are in a state of cyber war,’ said Giragosian. `Vulnerability in
a cyber space would also make Armenia vulnerable in a battlefield.’

Giragosian noted that while hacker attacks against Armenian media websites
are routinely carried out from the territory of Azerbaijan, the most recent
one was launched from the territory of Turkey causing a great deal of
anxiety among Armenian specialists.

Giragosian called upon the president of Armenia, the secretary of the
National Security Council and the minister of defense to pay more attention
to problems of cyber security. In particular, he made a case for
de-monopolizing the IT sector, improving copyright protection standards and
making serious preparations for possible emergency situations as effective
measures to solve the problem.

Also, Giragosian suggested developing Armenia’s IT potential to ensure the
sphere does not depend on external factors.

`Energy and transportation in Armenia as well as nearly the whole telecom
sector is owned by Russian companies, which puts Russia in a dominant
position. It is necessary to ensure competition. Otherwise the development
of IT is impossible,’ he said.

Armenia is also heavily dependent on Georgia, its major internet conduit.

**************************************** **********************************3. Former President, New Job: Will Kocharyan be content as a businessman

By Georg Khachatryan

ArmeniaNow reporter

Since March 2008, when President Robert Kocharyan was replaced by another
president, rumors were circulated about his return into major politics.
Kocharyan himself, however, never gave reason to believe he intended to,
say, head the government (as many newspapers wrote) or become one of the
directors of GasProm OJSC (Russian company in Armenia)

After leaving office Kocharyan reappeared in the spotlight only in September
of the same year – during the opening ceremony of the new transport
interchange in the center of Yerevan.

`My return to politics is being much speculated on. After having completed
my tenure in the office I acquired freedom I am not yet tired of. It is the
second time in the last six months I am wearing a tie,’ said the former
president having led the country for a decade from 1998 to 2008.

Kocharyan, now 55, did not comment more, adding only that he wasn’t going
to become `the youngest pensioner of the country’. The question what the
former president was planning to do became less relevant, with more
important issues discussed like those on domestic and foreign affairs.

Last month news on Kocharyan’s, appointment as the director of a major
Russian financial- industrial corporation appeared in the press. The press
release said in part that Kocharyan had been appointed to the position of
the director of Joint-Stock Financial Corporation Systema (JSFC Systema),
where he would be supervising the work and lobbying the interests of the
Armenian assets in the major financial-industrial corporation.

Kocharyan was offered a post on the board of directors yet in March, when a
decision was made to expand the board from 10 members to 13.

`Mister Robert Kocharyan knows very well the market of CIS countries where
our affiliate companies- MTS, Comstar-OTS, Citronix – are operating; he is
also experienced in international cooperation and is highly respected by the
business communities of Russia and abroad,’ says the press release posted
now in the company’s official website.

Armenian assets of JSFC Systema are the affiliate Comstar-OTS and 80 percent
of K-Telecom mobile operator (brand: VivaCell-MTS)

In late 2008, Citronix company expressed its readiness to form a venture
fund for creating a free trade zone on the basis of a major Armenian
electro-technical enterprise CJSC `RAO Mars’.

Mars stock was estimated equal to $56 million and passed to Russia as a
repayment of Armenia’s state debt in 2003. Observers do not exclude the
possible connection between Kocharyan’s appointment and the forthcoming
final deal. There is also a possibility of developing projects on Systema’s
purchase of other Armenian assets passed to Russia as a payback for debts,
in particular, the practically idle research institutes of Mathematical
Machines and Automated Management Systems (known as Mergelyan Institute).

Kocharyan himself has not made any comments since his appointment.

Commenting on Kocharyan’s appointment, an independent political analyst
Yervand Bozoyan said there is nothing unusual about that.

According to him, retired state leaders sometimes hold managing positions in
corporations, like, for instance, it happened with the former German
chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, who is now leading Nord Stream Russian-German
corporation. Former US presidents often become advisors on foreign affairs,
as in the case of Jimmy Carter.

`I do not think Robert Kocharyan has completely devoted himself to business.
Life proves that major businessmen often switch to politics with the most
vivid example of that being Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. The
reverse situations are unknown in history, so Kocharyan’s case can hardly
become an exception. I believe he has decided to wait out a while, before
making a decision whether or not to return to politics. Most probably, the
manager’s position at JSFC Systema is a temporary haven for Kocharyan and we
will still hear about him later. Anyway, time will show,’ says the analyst.

The assistants of the ex-president’s office located on the 6th floor of
Erebuni-Plaza hotel inform that Kocharyan attends the office quite
regularly, reads print and electronic media, has meetings with diplomats and
representatives of NGOs.

During his meeting with the press last September, Kocharyan, reflecting on
the speculations that the domestic situation in Armenia would not stabilize
until the country had gotten rid of `Kocharyan’s heritage’, the ex-president
pointed out that `it is impossible to get rid of that heritage’.

`That heritage is viable Armenia, beautified Yerevan, restored Gyumri, the
Northern Avenue, civil service system, with professionals working in it,
which has been created during many years,’ said the ex-president.

Time will show whether Kocharyan’s election as a member of the board of
directors of JSFC Systema will become the springboard for return into
politics or he will prefer to get completely involved in business.

************************************* *************************************=4. Bones and Backbones: A history of Azokh, from caves to politics, from
**paleontology to resolution

Aris Ghazinyan

ArmeniaNow reporter

On July 19 in the village of Azokh Levon Asryan celebrated a significant
jubilee – the 20th anniversary of the Resolution on the Karabakh issue
settlement adopted by the US Senate Committee on Foreign Arrairs.

The Resolution on `US assistance in peaceful settlement of the argument
over Nagorno Karabakh in accordance with Soviet Armenian people’s will’
adopted in 1989 says:

`Call upon the president of USSR Mikhail Gorbachev to discuss with the
representatives of Nagorno Karabakh as well as the representatives of the
democratic movement (including the recently discharged from custody members
of the `Karabakh’ Comittee) the demand on reunion with Armenia’.

People of Nagorno Karabakh remember and know many things.

Or, at least, much more than politicians, political analysts, journalists
and diplomats. The people know the most important thing: regardless of any
decisions and the whole negotiation process, this land has never had another

The village population has always been Armenian – in Soviet times as
well. They
didn’t abandon their native village even during the Azerbaijani military
agression, the culmination of which was in the winter of 1993-94, when
Azokh was under fire from Fizuli region.

Levon Asryan’s house was under intensive shelling, the traces of which can
still be seen – numerous cracks on the walls and furniture caused by
fragmentaion shells.

`During the war the village lost 18 citizen-soldiers,’ recalls Asryan.
`Azokh was isolated and we had to initiate the construction of a road that
would connect the village with the rest of Artskh. During the hardest times
that road was the only communication means by which food supplies were
delivered and defense technology was transported.’

Today more than 800 people live in Azokh with 252 peasant housholds. The
main age peculiarity of the population is the prevailance of children born
in peacetime. The local school has around 200 pupils, which makes more than
25 percent of the total village population. If the number of children born
in the dreadful 1993 was 6 (they are in the tenth form now), there are 42
children in the sixth and eightth forms.

In 1974 Azokh’s population was hardly over 600 people. The highest indicator
was in 1997 when that number reached 1,075. But the residents of Azokh
are certain in achieving the same indicator in the nearst future.

`Today Azokh is among the territories where construction is implemented
within the framework of `Hayastan’ All-Armenian Fund’s North-South project,’
says Asryan. `That is a really great intitiative’.

According to the contemrporay territorial-administrative division, Azokh is
a part of settlements in NKR Hadrut region.

Virvan or Virapavan is the the ancient name of the famous Azokh Cave given
by the residents of the village sharing the same name. The village acquired
world fame in 1960-1970s, when an archeological expedition discovered in the
cave a cultural layer of Ashel epoch – of orthograde humankind, living here
more than 300 thousand years ago. During the following years the place also
became of great paleontologic interest. Besides the 6,000 working tools,
more than 20,000 bones of different anumal species were found in the cave.

Today the name of this village located in the south-east foothills of the
Karabakh vulcanic plateau often appears in official Azeri documents
submitted to the sessional hearings of the Parliamentary Assembly of the
Council of Europe.

Such close attention to Azokh is conditioned by the excavation held in the
territory of the village not only by Armenian archeologists but also those
from England, Ireland and Spain.

Exploration works of an international expedition, according to Azerbaijan’s
version, are nothing more than `unauthorized by official Baku illegal
actions aimed at destruction of an outstanding monument holding whole strata
of Azeri culture’.

In Karabakh itself the construction of the 170 kilometer road North-South
linking Martakert to Hadrut, has not only a major military-strategic
significance, but is also important because 70 percent of agricultural
produce of Azokh is exported to Stepanakert market.

`It has finally become in the villagers’s interest to produce high volumes
of produce and intensify their work,’ says Asryan. `It is mainly meat and
diary that’s taken out to the market, since because of the serious problems
with irrigation we are developing mostly animal husbandry.’

Yet in 1970-80s Azokh was famous for its vineyards. There is practically
none left now because of lack of water. Nonetheless, Azokh residents don’t
lose heart.

`We are able now to deliver cheese, butter, meat to the capital with
practically no effort. We coudn’t have even imagined that would ever be
possible’, one villager says.

Mostly involved in animal husbandry, they have serious hopes connected to
North-South road when it is finally put into operation along the entire
perimeter. The road is often called `Artsakh’s backbone’.

************************************** ************************************
5. Changing Landscape and Attitudes: ATP celebrates 15 years of success on
Armenia’s rough soil

By Karine Ionesyan

It is already 15 years that one of Armenia’s largest environmental
organizations, the Armenia Tree Project (ATP) charitable foundation, has
been involved in tree-planting and other environmental projects in Armenia.

Operational since 1994, the program () has aimed to
restore the green in the territories that had been logged and deprived of
vegetation in consequence of a severe energy crisis in the early years of
Armenian independence when people had to cut trees for fuel in harsh winter

Based in Watertown, Massachusetts USA, and Yerevan, ATP has faced an uphill
climb in combating desertification in the biologically diverse but
threatened Caucasus region.

With a staff of more than 80 in Armenia, ATP is going to celebrate its 15th
anniversary by undertaking its most challenging and ambitious plans ever — to
plant more than million trees by end of this year.

ATP’s programs were expanded in 2004 to include poverty reduction, large
scale reforestation, and environmental education in rural villages which
were desperately poor and suffering from the effects of deforestation. A
total of 500,000 trees were planed as part of the ATP program that year

ATP’s founder Carolyn Mugar says it became clear at that time that
restoration of only public territories would not have a sufficient impact on
the growing problem of deforestation.

`At that time, only five years ago, I instructed our staff to initiate a
program under which 15 million trees will have been planted by 2015, the 100
th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide – ten trees for each genocide
victim,’ said Mugar.

During the 15 years of its activities, ATP has planted and restored more
than 3 million trees some 800 sites around the country and created hundreds
of jobs for impoverished Armenians in tree-regeneration programs.

Yet, Chairman of Armenia’s Union of the Green Hakob Sanasaryan says the
scale of tree-planting in Armenia is far from being sufficient. For
comparison, he cites some statistical data that show 3,000 hectares were
planted with trees in Armenia on an annual basis during the Soviet times.
Only 100 hectares of trees are planted annually now, according to the

`Logging has proceeded at a higher rate since the end of the crisis years
and export of such trees as oak and beech began,’ says Sanasaryan.

ATP public relations officer Bella Avetisyan says: `We know that logging
continuing in different places, but we try at least to mitigate the problem
by planting trees and educating the younger generation.’

The organization also produces documentaries that it believes can educate
people on environmental issues. It has released 13 documentaries on
different environmental subjects and problems. Two of them tell about
tree-planting activities and environmental education carried out by the
foundation. Also, one cartoon telling about how animals preserve their
habitat was recently released.

The ATP released its latest documentary this year in celebration of its 15th

The 15-minute film, `Every Tree=85,’ is about its cutting-edge tree planting
and environmental education programs.

`I personally accompanied the filmmakers on a tour of ATP’s three nurseries,
two education centers, and dozens of planting sites, and I think this new
ATP documentary film captures the emotion and impact of our tree planting,
poverty reduction, and educational programs,’ says ATP Executive Director
Jeff Masarjian.

`Although it is our 15th anniversary, this has been a difficult year because
of the global economic recession. Nevertheless, we are making every effort
to follow through on our commitment to purchase and plant the tree seedlings
grown by partner families in Armenia who are working with ATP.’

Mariam Sukhudyan, an active environmental campaigner in Armenia who, in
particular, has opposed the latest mining project potentially endangering
the unique Teghut forest in the northwest of the country, thinks films like
ATP’s are good instruments in fighting and achieve goals.

`My friends and I are ready to make those films available to the public
through various festivals and other events,’ she says.

At the Energy Globe Awards in Prague in April, ATP was recognized as
national winner with its `Plant an Idea, Plant a Tree’ environmental
curriculum for school teachers – a manual of practical educational

************************* *************************************************= 6. Letter Home: A Diaspora discovers Armenia and `Armenianness’

Letter Home

By Elizabeth Gemdjian

Armenian Assembly of America intern / Special to ArmeniaNow**

I have reached the point in my trip where the time I have been here exceeds
the time I have left.

And while I still have more questions than answers about my role and place
in Armenia and its affairs, there are moments when everything becomes less
complicated and I can detect a glimmer of insight and clarity.

Such a moment occurred on a weekend trip to Tsaghkadzor summer camp, where
most campers are either orphans or come from poor families. I was excited
to spend the day playing with the children, but did not foresee how much I
could learn from them. The moment our group reached the camp and
disembarked from the bus, we were greeted by excited children who grabbed us
by the hand and immediately pulled us to the play area. This may not seem
so extraordinary, but the more I thought about it, the more inspiring was
the time I spent at the camp.

During my time at the camp, not once did a child ask me whether I spoke
Western Armenian or Eastern Armenian, or if I was Spiurkahay, Hayastanzi, or
Barskahay. They looked past my mistakes and made every effort to
communicate with me, using hand gestures or examples to clarify what I did
not understand. I, in turn, found my shyness and inhibition about speaking
Armenian slipping away as the children’s openness and excitement took over.
We were not there to argue about differences – we were there to play with and
learn from each other. Sure, to do so we all had to make compromises and
put in a little extra effort, but the resulting environment of cooperation
and friendship made it worth it. There was no taking without giving, and in
the end, we were all getting something out of the exchange. Was this a
glimpse of a potential `Great Equalizer’?

I do not have an answer yet. But I do know that it is amazing what you can
learn from children. Problems and distinctions that seemed so complicated
dissolve in their clear eyes. Maybe we all need a dose of such clarity to
be able to see the big picture instead of focusing on petty issues,
resentment, and negative impressions.

For better or worse, we are all Armenian and cling to this essential part of
our identities. What we need is a better system of give-and-take so that we
can all benefit from this relationship, learning from our diverse
backgrounds and experiences in order to build strong connections of support
and collaboration. Just as the children looked for ways to get around
difficulties to reach a level of understanding that would allow
communication and interaction to occur, we must be resourceful and use the
unique characteristics of the Armenian community to our advantage. At least
we must not stifle the open and cooperative spirit of children willing to
look past difference to find similarities.

What will I remember from the time I spent at Tsaghkadzor camp? Certainly
not the words I did not understand or rules broken on the playground. I
will carry with me the smiles of children happy to see me as nothing more
than a new friend, the trust and openness that they approached us with, and
their pleas for us to prolong our trip and play a little longer.

I hope that one day, we can be inspired to make relations between diverse
groups of Armenians worldwide resemble the kinds of interactions I found
amongst the children at Tsaghkadzor.

Elizabeth, 22, is studying anthropology at Columbia University in New York
City, her home. She is in Armenia as part of the Armenian Assembly of
America internship program. She is first generation Armenian-American. Her
immediate family stems from Bulgaria, where her grandparents were moved
following the Armenian Genocide.

************************************* *************************************

7. Sport: Armenia soccer clubs out of European tournaments

By Suren Musayelyan


Armenian champion Pyunik were eliminated from the UEFA Champions League
second qualifying round after losing to Dinamo Zagreb on aggregate. After
a goalless draw in Yerevan last week, Pyunik lost 0-3 in Zagreb on Tuesday
and dropped out of further contest.

Kapan’s Gandzasar also lost to Dutch NAC Breda on aggregate and dropped out
of the UEFA Europa League tournament where it started from the second
qualifying round. After losing in the first-leg match in the Netherlands
0-6, Gandzasar lost at home 0-2 on Thursday.

Earlier, Armenia’s Banants and Mika were also eliminated from the Europa

No Armenian club has yet reached the main stage of a European club
tournament held under the aegis of the UEFA since Armenia became associated
with European soccer’s governing body in the early 1990s.


Olympic champion GM Levon Aronyan takes part in the Rapid World Championship
with the current World Champion Anand, GM Naiditsch, GM Nepomniachtchi.

Aronyan also participates in the Chess 960 World Championship with GMs
Movsesian, Nakamura, Bologan.

Olympic champions GM Vladimir Hakobyan, GM Gabriel Sargsyan, as well as
several other Armenian chess players play in the Ordix Open 2009. GMs
Grishcuk, Bacrot, Gashimov, Kamsky, Mamdeyarov, Nakamura, Navara, Bologan
are among their main opponents.

All these tournaments are included in the program of Chess Classic Mainz
2009 which is being held from 28th July to 2nd August.

(Source: )

Pan-Armenian sports

Pan-Armenian basketball and football tournaments will be held in Armenia in
August, according to organizers, the Pan-Armenian Games World Committee.

The tournaments will be held from August 9 to 16. quotes Ministry of Sport Department head Yeghishe Davtyan as
saying that 15 applications have already been received from football and
basketball teams. He said they expected more applications by the deadline,
which is August 1.

Football matches will be held in Ararat, Artashat, Ashtarak and Abovyan. The
basketball tournament is to be held in sport halls of the Yerevan sport
society Dynamo, Arabkir sport school N1 and the Orange fitness club.

World Games of the Armenian sport society Homenetmen will be held in Yerevan
August 1-8. Participants of the games will remain in the Armenian capital to
take part in the Pan-Armenian games, the online sport resource informs.

(Sources: ; )