ETHIOPIA – WHAT A DUBIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDING?
Recently I have read an article entitled: Archaeologists find queen
of Sheba’s palace at Aksum. The archaeologists from Hamburg Germany
do believe in finding an altar of ancient Judaism. On the contrary,
another group of German archaeologists have earlier presented their
excavations from Yemen and there was a televised show about the queen
of Sheba. Moreover, an English man has explicitly commented that the
queen of Sheba could not be found in Africa. How could then the group
led by Helmut Ziegert alleged to have discovered the palace of queen
of Sheba at Aksum?
Well and good let they assume she is from South Arabia. That doesn’t
matter. As the Arabian Peninsula was part and parcel of the African
continent till the coming of European colonialism and expansion. The
original inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula were black Africans and
spoke a Cushitic language. Pastoralists with longhorn-and shorthorn
type cattle occupied the Arabian Peninsula. The rock art of the
Hametic Longhorn type in Yemen is similar to that found in central
Sahara. Murdoc (1959) has correctly concluded that Cushitic-speaking
nomadic pastoralists migrated with their longhorn (Bos taurus) cattle
to Northeast Africa. According to Lenormant (1890), Diop (1974),
Hailu Habtu (1987), Obenga, Teshale Tibebu, Asres Yenesew (1943),
and Ayele Bekri (1997) a Kametic (Cushitic) empire existed throughout
Arabia. Besides that pharaoh Tuthmosis III (1479-1425 B.C) conquered
the Arabian Peninsula and Aksum annexed it twice to its African empire.
The truth of the matter is, that many of the so-called Ethiopianst
scholars, archaeologists and ethnologists have deliberately distorted
the African origin of the Ethiopian civilization and were spreading
hotchpotch just to undermine the Ethiopian role as torch bearer
of freedom and the only bastion of African independence. The
self-called Westerners make claim to own exclusively the ancient
Egyptian civilization by flatly rejecting the cultural, geographical,
historical and racial connections between Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia and
other parts of Africa.
The objective of the excavation is said to document the "orgins of
the Ethiopian state and the orthodox church." What a mess!!
Unlike many west European countries including Italy and Germany,
the Ethiopian state and people have a written history of more than
five thousands years. Ethiopia does not need any documentation. Thus,
it isn’t at all their business to excavate at the ancient holly city
of Aksum to distort and misinterpret. So far, there have been many
archaeological excavations at Aksum. Most of them are the die-hard
proponents of the "South Arabian origin
of the Ethiopian civilization." Without even a carbon dating they
have assigned very low dates not to negate the Euro centric world
order of the 19 th century.
The confused periodization of the Aksumite civilization has excluded
its predecessor the Punite and Daamite civilization. In fact, Aksum
is older than Memphis, Thebes, Napata, Athen, Rome, Jerusalem, and
According to M. Gilbert who visited Ethiopia: There are no obelisks
either at Rome or in Egypt, which can be compared to those at Aksum,
whether as regards the workmanship or the height… The obelisks, in
my opinion belong to the dynasty contemporary, or perhaps, anterior,
to that of the pharaohs of Egypt.
And yet Anno Dilmann one of the followers of Hegel manufactured in his
discourse "uber die AnfÃ¤nge des Axumitischen Reiches", the obelisks
of Aksum, the rock-hewn churches etc. were carved by foreign (Egyptian
and Greek) workers but not by Ethiopians. Little wonder in view of
these bigots black Africans are incapable of making their own history
and civilization. The Hegelian concept of history in the continental
Africa begins with the colonial settlers from Europe. The hegemonies
of Westerners are established by distorting the history of Africans,
Asians and Native Americans and by romantic philosophy.
The group from Hamburg perpetuates the same old story and confusion.
On the one hand, it has become an accepted "truth" that queen of Sheba
is from south Arabia (Yemen) and on the other hand her existence at
Aksum in the first milllenium B.C is flatly rejected. She is declared
the "legendary queen of Ethiopia" and Kibre Negest (The glory the
kings) the supreme myth.of Ethiopia’s Solomonic origins.
The Christian Aksumite Empire in the sixth century during the
reign of emperor Caleb was one of the four super powers, which was
able to protect the Monophysite world. So the Copts have composed
the substantial core of the Kibre Negest to glorify the Ethiopian
monarch of the period i.e. emperor Caleb, as heir to Solomon. This
is testified by the Armenian writer Abu Salih, living in Egypt in
the late twelfth century.
There are discrepancies between the "arrival of Judaism in Ethiopia"
and the queen of Sheba as ruler of South Arabia (Yemen). In fact many
Africans have customs in common with the ancient Hebrew nomadic pastor
lists. Circumcision was and is an Ethiopian and Egyptian ritual and
Moses leader and lawgiver of the Hebrew nomads was an Egyptian priest
educated in all Egyptian wisdom and science of medicine. The Hebrew
concept of creation as embodied in Genesis did not emerge before about
1000 B.C. The earliest Egyption civilization and theory of creation
appeared about 3000 B.C
Therefore, "Judaism" did not arrive to Ethiopia or Africa. The Exodus
is also from Africa to Western Asia. The most interesting books that
constitute the Old Testament such as Proverbs and Ecclesiastes were in
fact copy of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts namely the proverbs
of Amen-em Ope.
Ethiopia is one of the first countries, which were converted
to Christianity. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church has combined the
teachings of the Old and the New Testament. The Orthodox Church of
Armenia, Ethiopia, Syria and India maintained the one nature of God
Eurocentriscts such as Adrian Hastings (1994) attribute this unique
nature of the Ethiopian church to "Hebraic Influence" especially from
the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria. He stated further that the early
Christianity in Alexandria developed within a highly Jewish context and
the practice of circumcision became established as a characteristic
of Egyptian Christianity. The apostles to Rome and Greece were all
Greek speaking Hebrews. Why then there was not Hebraic influence of
circumcision and the Ark of the Covenant in "European Christianity"? In
western Europe after the collapse of the Western Empire began the
erosion of the sacred imagined community. Subsequently Pseudotheology
and the so-called romantic philosophy developed instead of Hellenistic
Judaism. This resulted in Anti-Semitism and flagrant racism since the
eighteenth century and culminating in the Holocaust mankind’s tragedy.
It is reported that the cult of Sothis developed in Ethiopia with
the arrival of Judaism and the Ark of the Covenant at Aksum.
This assumption is sheer nonsense and is in contradiction with what
they have previously propagated about the Felashas. The Felashas (the
so-called Ethiopian Jew) were not accepted by Zionists as racially
Thanks to the overthrow of the oldest traditional monarchy in the
world and the coming of the cold war into Ethiopia that the Felashas
were recognized as "Jew" for the sake of geopolitical strategies.
The question now to ask is, when and where did start the so-called
the cult of Sothis at Aksum?
The birth of our calendar Ancient Egypt and Ethiopians use the solar
calendar, which has a yearly cycle of twelve months, and it begins
in September after the end of the rainy season when the great Nile
River overflowed its banks and the flora of the Ethiopian highland
begins to bloom.
A precise astronomical determination of the day on which the brightest
of the fixed stars, Sirius, rose on the horizon together with the
sun and remained visible for a few moments until it faded with the
advance of dawn. This natural phenomenon was called the rising of
Sirius. Each of the twelve months consisted of thirty days. As the
year consisted of 365 days, the extra 5 days were added at the end of
the year as the birthdays of the great gods and observed as festivals
during which no work was done.
The priests of the Nile valley were also aware of still missing a
quarter of a day (365 1/ 4) days.
Ancient Ethiopians knew that it would take Sirius 1460 years (365* 4)
to get back exactly to the same point on the horizon. This is known
as the Sothic cycle. Sothic being the Greek name for Sirius.
The Greek borrowed the Egyptian solar calendar, art, architecture,
engineering, astronomy, mathematics, medicine and other sciences
almost two and half millennia later. The black people of the Nile
valley are the pioneer of science, medicine, geometry, law, astronomy,
architecture, agriculture, philosophy, etc.
The myth of Semitic Arabia
The "Semitic Arabian origin" and the "diffusion" of any other
civilization into the highlands of ancient Ethiopia were invented
to minimize the testimony of the splendour stelae of ancient Aksum,
its numerous historical artefacts, the dressed statues and foremost
to falsify its cultural, geographical and racial relationship with
Nubia and ancient Egypt along the Nile river from south to north. When
did civilization started in ancient Greece? Ethiopia and Egypt are
the cradle of civilization and mankind. The Greeks got later all
wisdom and knowledge from the Nile valley in Africa and the Middle
East. They continually recorded and passed to the late generation,
which they had learnt, orally from the learned men of Africa.
Martin Bernal’s Black Athena does corroborate theses facts that
Afro-Asiatic languages and the Nile Valley ancient civilization are
the fundamental basis of the Greco-Roman civilization. When ancient
Greece and its successor Rome count their civilization by centuries,
ancient Egypt and Ethiopia of Africa can count by millennium, and
the remains of that splendour now eclipse the remains of any other
country in the world.
Unlike ancient Egypt, the independent existence of the Ethiopian
nation since time immemorial in the in the heart of Africa is a thorn
in the flesh of all racists and colonial aspirants of the 19th century.
It would be better for all "archaeologists" to excavate the legendary
palace of king Solomon in Palestine rather than fabricating age-old
Eurocentric views on Africans. There has been neither archaeological
nor historical evidence for the existence king Solomon and his
palace. The Bible is neither a historical record of past nor an
On the other hand, the kings of Egypt and Ethiopia have left numerous
inscriptions to testify their existence in time and space.
The non-African dogmatic belief that the Sabean "Semitic colonists"
from the Arabian Peninsula are the creators of the Ethiopian
civilization, its culture, religion and language is the most pervasive
In the 19th century there was an ethnographic show of "noble savages"
in west European and North American metropolis. Black Africans,
red Indians especially Pygmies from central Africa, Zulus and Somali
children riding an ostrich were on show in many zoological gardens. As
the ethnographic exhibition reached it climax, the Ethiopian black
people led by Emperor Minelik won a decisive victory over the European
colonial power at the famous battle of Adwa in 1896. Thereafter,
Ethiopians were explained away to be "Caucasoid" white colonists from
southwestern Asia (Arabian Felix).
Since Ethiopia repulsed and resisted the scramble of Africa, Westerners
and their social engineers used science and pseudotheology to propagate
all sorts of anti-Ethiopian conspiracies such as the "Hametic and
Semitic" myths have been systematically fabricated. Any traces of
civilization on the African soil is claimed to be the brainchild of the
"Hametic super race." So the great wall of Zimbabwe was attributed to
be the work of ancient colonists of the Middle East. The "Hamaites
and the Semites" were assumed to be immigrants from the Middle
East. Wainwright (1949) and Jeffery (1954) propagated the once
commonly held idea that the monumental sites of the Great Zimbabwe
were produced by the nomadic Oromo (Galla) invaders from Ethiopia in
the ninth century.
Europeans of the eighteenth century such as Gobineau devised
a hierarchy of races in accordance with the theory of social
Darwinism. Thereby, ‘whites’ especially the Anglo-Saxon (Teutons) race
was placed in the phyla of ‘Caucasoid’ at the apex, the ‘Mongoloid
and Semite’ in between and the so-called ‘Negroid race’ at the
bottom of the ladder. Besides that the mythology of Indo-Germanic,
Aryan Herrenvolkism, was made up by some half-educated East Indian
company social engineers being called Orientalists just to exploit
and subjugate the Indian sub-continent
Occidental Christians who call themselves Catholic and the several
Protestant denominations have no difference in their theology. The
political fragmentation and the religious upheaval of the sixteenth
century are due to the power struggle between the Romance and
Germanic nations of Western Europe. It should not be forgotten that
the so-called Catholic crusaders of Western Europe in the 12-century
ransacked Constantinople, the metropolis of the Byzantine Empire.
The growth and global expansion of capitalism began with enslavement
of Africans, Asians and Americans. The Bible was then used to justify
enslavement of black Africans. According to some western theological
school the "curse of Noah" was the main cause for blackness but not
the melanin in the dermal tissue.
Zionists are using the fabulous story of queen of Sheba to steal
the Ethiopian unique cultural heritage. Consequently the Felasha
were converted to Zionism and displaced from the land of their
birth. The campaign of displacing has no end. Zionists are conspiring
to depopulate and uproot Ethiopian Christianity in the disguise of
Judaism. Orthodox Christian Agaus (Felasha Mura) are collected from
their villages to be lifted to Palestine. The Flashas who are now in
Israel are victims of racial abuses and are guinea pigs for bigoted
sociologists and anthropologists.
What is Semitic?
Semitic is a designation for a group of languages both in Africa
and Asia. Schloezer introduced the term. According to the Genesis,
people who spoke the Semitic languages are the decendants of Shem
the son of Noah. On the other hand, the term Cushitic is given to the
nations of kam, the son of Noah and the father of Cush. The Biblical
classification of nations is founded neither upon linguistic nor upon
‘race’. The term Hameto-Semitic was introduced by the famous German
Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius and is now replaced by Afro-Asiatic
language family. Afro-Asiatic languages originated from Ethiopia.
"Proto-Semitic" language speakers have lived in the Ethiopian
Rift Valley and plateaus since prehistory. In central and southern
Ethiopia, there are thousand obelisks with hieroglyphic signs. They are
widespread in southern and central Ethiopia extending from Gurageland
to Lake Turkana. Father Azias has studied these ancient monuments.
The "Semitic" family is divided into three branches: eastern,
northwestern and Southern. Arabic and Ethiopic (Geez) belong to
southern Semitic. Semitic speaking people are not from the same
race. For example different races such as black and brown speak the
Arabic language. On the other hand the Cushitic and the so-called
Ethio-semitic speaking people in Africa belong to the same race
The languages of Africa in general and that of Ethiopia in particular
have been classified based on geography and racial basis. The
Semitic and Cushitic dichotomy is an occidental divisive hypothesis
masterminded by Leo Reinisch. In the age-old Ethiopian tradition it
does not exist The Ethiopian classical language Geez is classified
as the house of Kam. The son of Kam is Kush (Kusa, Kusayi). The
holly city of Aksum was founded by Kush the first son of Kam. Aksum
means the metropolis of Cushites. According to Aleka Taye the Agaw,
the Amahara, the Gurage, the Argoba and the Tigree people of Ethiopia
have a common ancestor.
Therefore, it is time to rectify the fake division of the Ethiopian
people into Cushitic and Semitic groups.
For example, the Amharic language cognates more than 70 % to the
Agaw language of central Ethiopia and yet Amharic is classified by
western "scholars" as "Semitic" and the Agaw language as " Hametic
or Cushitic." Geez is not a south Semitic language. It did not origin
from south Arabia but in the heart of Africa in the Nile Valley. Geez
is more ancient and more grammatically superior to Aramaic, Arabic
There has been a considerable difference of opinion among genuine
linguists as to the criteria to be applied when identifying an Ethiopic
(Geez) language as a Semitic. The late Soviet scholars A.B Dolgopolsky
and Igor Diakonoft did not classify Ethiopic as a "south Semitic". Geez
must have its own independent classification. Some characteristics,
which do not allow Geez to classify it into "Semitic" language: – the
indication of the vowels, – has no definite Article, – its grammar is
purely Kametic, – posses very hard sound like Qe, Ge, Te, etc – Geez
and all other related Ethiopian languages have a sharp distiction
between imperfect and subjenction – Geez is written from left to
right unlike the so-called Semitic scripts like Arabic and Hebrew.
True, Geez has come into contact with other neibouring languages such
as Aramaic, Acadian, Greek, Arabic, and Coptic etc. In this regard
the role played by Judaeo-Christian missionaries and merchants is
very significant. They had brought new vocabularies, which Geez has in
common with other languages. Geez did not originate from Sabean. Quite
contrary Sabean was derived from Hymaritic, a language that was
spoken in province of Ethiopia across the Uatur or the Red Sea. The
Sabean inscription found in Yemen is not older than 100 BC. The very
old inscription of Sabean emanated from the oldest city at Jeha in
ancient Ethiopia. Geez does not resemble Sabean in vocabulary, syntax
and proper name. Most of the inscription found Yemen is a contemporary
record of events during the Aksumite Ethiopia. Inscription written
in Geez and Sabean from Ethiopian Soil date back to 6th century B.C
The different ethnic groups and languages of Ethiopia have become a
guinea pig for western "scholars" who are using their art and science
of divisiveness. In the name of self-determination of ethnic groups
the ancient black nation has to be partitioned into Bantustans,
which would be vassal states loyal to westerners.
The Origins of the Ethiopian State The Ethiopian region extending
from East Africa to the Upper Egypt was settled in the early
Palaeolithic period. As a result of climatic change, the different
tribes of Ethiopia were forced to live in the savannas surrounding
the Nile. They become hunters, fruit gatherers and fishers. The
drying up of the savannah during Neolithic period resulted in mass
dispersion of the population to the different parts of Africa, the
Middle East and southwest Asia. Some Ethiopians migrated towards
the southern parts of Africa in the direction of Congo and Zambezi
basins and others went towards the west along the banks the river Oya
(Niger). In the most ancient time black people inhabited the northern
part of Africa and the Middle East. The Sumerians were black people
who lived in Mesopotamia. The indigenous inhabitant ants of the Indian
sub-continent, the Dravidians, the original inhabitants of Australia,
Tasmania, and Polynesia, New Zealand are all black people.
Population pressure resulted in the hunters to become
stockbreeders. This transition took place along the banks, valleys and
deltas of the rivers. The most ancient farming settlement of Africa
in the Nile Valley gave rise to the successive culture of the various
tribes of Africa. In the Nile valley and the Ethiopian plateau the
struggle for land and cattle ensued from the development the petty
states. From an aggregation of these states grew the ancient Ethiopian
state and civilization contemporary to ancient Egyptian. Ethiopians
have nothing to do with the so-called Sabean immigrants from Arabia.
The Greek historian Herodotus (480- 425 B.C) who visited Egypt
has described the relationship between the Ethiopians and the
Egyptians. They alone among mankind have practised circumcision since
time immemorial and others such as the Phoenicians and Syrians learnt
the practice from the Egyptians and Ethiopians.
According to Diodorus of Sicily, Greek historian, Ethiopia colonized
Egypt. At the beginning of the world Egypt was simply a sea but
the Nile carrying down vast quantities of loam from Ethiopia in
its flood waters, finally filled it in and made it part of the
continent Kamit or Kmt was the native name of ancient Egypt, which
means the black land. The Biblical Kam is most probably derived from
Kamit. Ancient Kamit and Ethiopia were part and parcel of the black
man’s civilization in the world. A genuine scholar of history cannot
separate ancient Ethiopia and Egypt. Racists have flatly asserted that
ancient Egyptians were whites and distorted the development of history
in the Nile Valley. They have no ears and eyes for everything, which
the black man did and does in the history of mankind. Time and again
it has been propagated in the name of science and history the theory
of "superior and inferior" races. The black race is categorically
characterised as uncivilized. And anything of African origin is
thought to be either imported or diffused from Europe or Asia. For
example Carlo Conti Rosisini one of the pseudoethiopianst claimed that
Treatise Zara Yakob and of Walde Heywat were the work of an Italian
Missionary named Giusto D’Urbino in the 19th century. Zera Yakob was
the famous Ethiopian philosopher in 17th century.
According to the hieroglyphic text an authentic civilization began as
early as 2500 B.C in Ethiopia. The successive Punt, Damat and Axumite
civilizations have their root in Africa (Jacqueline Pirenne, Du Bois,
Drsuilla Dunjee Houstone, Rodolfo Fatovitch, 1987).
Punt the Land of the Abasha Ancient Egyptians hieroglyphic records
of more than thirteen centuries (2500-1170 BC) bear the existence
of the country called PWNT (Punt) and its people called Abesha in
Northeast Africa. Punt was a holy land (Taneter) and was regarded as
an ancestral homeland of the Pharaohs of ancient Egypt.
In the 5 th Dynasty at the height of the Pyramid Age began the earliest
record on Punt during the reign of Sahure (2450 BC). Sixty years later
there is a record on the expidtion to Punt land led by Harhuf. He
brought back a dancing dwarf (denk). Pharaoh Pepi II (2270 BC) sent
an expidition to Punt.
During the reign of Senusert II one of the most interesting records
of that age was a group of 37 Aamu of Shu brought a tribute of
Kolh. The leader of the delegation leading a tamed ibex, his title
and name is before him heq setu Abasha, which means princes of the
hill country. Abasha means the father of a present. The inscription
of Wadi Hammamat from the XI Dynasty (2134-2040 B.C) records the
expedition to the holy land of Punt by the high offical Henu. Punt was
one of the countries supposed to be under the jurisdiction of Hathor,
the godess of beauty (nbt Pun). In the in script of the XII Dynasty
reads: uru nu pun, which means the chiefs of Punt greet you the king
of Kemet and the son of the nine nations (peoples). Horus had also
the nickname nb Pun (Lord of Punt).
The scotish traveller James Bruce in the 18 th centuries has seen
a stela inscribed in hieroglyphs sign at Aksum, which was dedicated
to Horus. The god Horus was son of Isis and Osris. The reigning king
was regarded as the living Horus. In ancient Egypt the king was not
a mortal, he was a god.
This stela was stolen and is now in Scotish Museum.
Queen Hatshepsut (1486-1468 BC) who declared herself the daughter Amon
and ruled as Pharaoh sent the famous Punt expidtion and erected the
two great oblisks at the Temple of Kranak. Besides that she built the
magnificently beautiful tomb and temple complex at Deir el-Bahri. The
voyage to Punt land was depicted in the entire south-end wall of the
Temple. Bas-relief shows the Punites and their chief named Parahu
and his wife Atiya.
The fleet brought back gums, myrrh, frankincense, Civet, baboon,
cattle, asses, ebony, balsam Ostrich feather, electrum, Panther skins,
rhino, Work people, gold, malachite, lapis lazuli Ebony, Giraffe,
Tuthmosis II (1490-1436 B.C) has twice received the products of
Punt. The trade expidtion was bilateral. The Punites undertake an
expidition via the Red Sea coast during the reign of Tuthmosis II and
Amenophis III (1391-1353 B.C) and this was depicted in the private
tomb-chapels of four high Thebean officials.
The expidition sent by Ramesses III (1184-1153 BC) to Punt is recorded
in the Great Papyrus Harris I.
The location of Punt and its geographical extent has been precisely
determined (K.A Kitchen, 1990). The Gulf of Aden and the Afar-Somali
coast have been discarded. Any non-African location of Punt had been
excluded once and forever.
The XXVI th Dynasty (715-664 BC) left us a valuable stela, which reads:
… Rain fall upon the mountain of Punt… rain was a scarcity in the
southern provinces… this month in which its rain was, when it was not
the season (for) it, even in the delta towns; your mother (the godess)
Neith had brought it for you – a Nile-flood to sustain your forces.
Rain falling in the mountains of Punt and the subsequent Nile
inundation into Egypt has shown that Punt was located in the
northwest Ethiopian highlands. The ebony (Dalbergia melanoxylm)
obtained from Punt was from the regions of northwester Ethiopia
(Gojam and Begemider).
The Abasha people of Punt did not come from anywhere; they are the
indigenous black, red and brown Africans since time immoral.
Bas-reliefs in Deir-al Bahari at Thebes depict the Ethiopians
cultivating myrrh and incense in the land of Punt. The people of Punt
belonged to the same race as Pharaoh of Egypt (Kemit). In ancient
Egypt there were four types of human races: red, yellow, black and
white (H. Brugsch, 1858)
The ancient Egyptian language is related to many Ethiopian languages
such as Agaw, Amharic, Tigrigna, Kunama, Wolamigna, Keficho, Gonga,
Gafat and Geez. All have in common monosyllabic words. Above all, the
formation of the plural in Amharic is derived from ancient Egyption
language (W.Vyciciil, 1952). Many Egyptian words and grammer cognates
with Amharic, Geez, Tigrigna and Agaw For example: ATEB (land, region),
AT (queen, mistress; great lady), ATI (King, emperor) BER (door, Gate),
MUT (death), MEMSHER (Evening), MERA (to guide), MERIT (earth), MESS,
HARA, SEWU (man), SEET (women), SHIFTA, TARE (Enemy), TENA (to grow
old, old aged man), TUAA (Morning), etc. (E.A W Budge, 1978).
The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system like Geez has only first order
character. Furthermore, the Merotic Ethiopian alphabet has resemblance
with the Geez. A six lines seal of queen Hendike Taktidamini from
the ancient city of Merowe is to be seen in Berlin Museum. Two dots
are used to separate words the same as in Geez, Amharic and Tigrigna.
The so-called Roman and Greek alphabets were derived form the
"semitic" consonantal alphabet that emanated from Egyptian hieroglyphic
writing. This was witnessed by the work of Sir William Flinders Petrie
who discovered the Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions and Sir Alan Gardiner
who proved the "semitic alphabet" is derived from Egyption hieroglyphic
writing system. At the temple to goddess Hathor in Sinai Peninsula,
an inscription which was to be read as Baalat was discovered.
The word Baal in Geez, Amharic and Tigrigna is a sacred term. Baal is a
religious anniversary, a day of rest and festivity celebrated weekly,
monthly or yearly. For example: Ethiopian and ancient Egyptian New
Year in the first half of September Gena (Xmas) on the 7th January
The Proto-Sinaitic alphabet is directly related to Ethioipian
Geez alphabet than to any other so-called North-western Semitic
family. Ethiopic (Geez) and ancient Egyptian writing systems are the
origin of the alphabet.