Pravda, Russia / RIA Novosti
March 31 2004
Saakashvili and Abashidze: 5 reasons behind Georgia-Adzharia conflict
Georgia’s central government lost control over many of its
constituent areas after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The
autonomies of South Ossetia and Abkhazia proclaimed independence.
Adzharia is about to follow the suit. Separatist sentiments are also
strong in the areas inhabited by Mingrels, Svans and Kistins. Experts
say the country is close to splitting into ethnic zones, i.e. Georgia
can again shrink down to the size of the medieval period in its
With the advent of President Mikhail Saakashvili and the new
government, Georgia began making moves to restore its territorial
integrity, i.e. to ensure Tbilisi’s sovereignty over Abkhazia, South
Ossetia and to consolidate sovereignty over Adzharia. The Georgian
president stepped up these efforts after visiting the United States
in February 2004.
Mr. Saakashvili secured the USA’s support for his efforts to regain
control over the entire country and have the Russian military bases
withdrawn from Georgia. This April, Pentagon experts are expected to
start training Georgian brigades, which will, apparently, be deployed
in the rebellious regions and near the Russian bases and
Reports saying that Georgia’s troops are ready to enter Adzharia
testify to this line of the new authorities. Adzharian leader Aslan
Abashidze says Tbilisi has “conspired a military action to punish
Adzharia as it punished Abkhazia and Ossetia.” Adzharia had been the
quietest of all Georgia’s autonomies. It is home to Adzharians, an
ethnic group of Georgian origin. However, unlike Georgians, who are
Orthodox Christians, modern Adzharians are Islam believers. These
ethnic groups also differ somewhat in their household traditions.
In 6th – 4th centuries BC, Adzharia was part of the western Georgian
kingdom of Colchis, which is known from a Greek myth about Agronauts.
>From the late 10th century, Adzharia was part of a united Georgia
(Sakartvelo). In the mid 15th century, it belonged to the powerful
In the 1570s, Adzharia fell under the Ottoman Empire’s jurisdiction.
In 1878, Adzharia was handed over to the Russian Empire in line with
a decision adopted at the Berlin Congress after the Russian-Turkish
war. After the collapse of the empire, Adzharia became an autonomous
republic within Georgia. (Mamed Abashidze, the current Adzharian
leader’s grandfather, was the speaker of Adzharia’s first ever
parliament from 1918 to 1921). The 1921 Kars Treaty signed by Russia,
Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia defined Adzharia as an
Living standards in Adzharia have always been much better than
anywhere else in Georgia. Modern Adzharia is a developed industrial
republic. There is an oil refinery, a ship-building, machine-building
and electromechanical plants, clothing factories, tobacco, tea and
fruit processing facilities in the republic.
Adzharia is a junction of important sea, railway, motor and air
routes of Georgia, which link the country to the rest of the world.
The Batumi sea port has been a municipal company belonging to
Adzharia since 1997. The port is equipped to process wet goods,
general and dry cargoes, and containers. In 2003, some 7 million tons
of oil were shipped in the Batumi port. Oil products make up about
70% of Batumi’s overall cargo turnover.
The railway ferry service, which opened in the port in 1998, is of
vital importance for Georgia, as well for all the Black Sea
countries, economically and politically. The ferry’s capacity is 4
million tons of cargoes a year. The ferry service, for example,
reduces the time of cargo deliveries from Hong Kong to Rotterdam by
Adzharia has been a semi-independent republic since 1991, when the
then Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia’s supporters made an
attempt on Mr. Abashidze’s life. The Adzharian leader was injured.
However, all armed groups deployed on Adzharian territory, which were
opposed to Mr. Abashidze, were disarmed after the assassination
attempt. The Georgian national guard’s attempt to invade Adzharia was
also thwarted. Georgian tanks were stopped on the border. Adzharia
was, thereby, untouched by the civil war.
Mr. Abashidze maintained rather friendly relations with the next
Georgian leader, Eduard Shevardnadze. Mr. Abashidze was the leader of
the pro-Shevardnadze “Revival” political party.
Mr. Saakashvili came to power in Georgia after the overturn of
President Shevardnadze. He won the presidential election promoting
the idea of nationalising all major industrial facilities and
strategically important industries. The new president also insisted
on regaining control over Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Adzharia
reacted by announcing the state of emergency and closing the borders,
the moves that could again put Georgia on the brink of civil war.
There are 18,000 troops in Georgia today. There are 10 combat
aircraft, 8 helicopters (6 US-made and 2 Turkish copters), 7 patrol
vessels, 120 armoured vehicles and 100 artillery guns in use.
Georgia’s M-day force is about 100,000 men.
Adzharia has a 2,000-strong police force (including 300 mounted
police), 8,000 militiamen (local militiamen usually armed with
hunting guns and old rifles). There is also a Russian military base.
Locals, many of who hold Russian citizenship, make up 80% of the base
Mr. Abashidze once said that Russia simply must protect Adzharia.
“There is the Kars Treaty, which obliges Turkey to protect the
Adzharian autonomy. There is also an earlier Moscow treaty,
stipulating similar obligations for Russia,” said Mr. Abashidze.
Under the Kars Treaty, Turkey and Russia can send troops to Adzharia
and Nakhichevan (Azerbaijan’s enclave on Armenian territory) in the
event of third countries’ military invasion of these regions. Unal
Cevikoz, Turkey’s ambassador to Azerbaijan, also recalled the treaty
on March 17, 2004. Mr. Cevikoz said the treaty continued to be in
Experts believe Georgia’s sending troops to Adzharia may trigger a
prolonged armed and political conflict, which will also involve
Turkey, Russia and, possibly, the USA.
Experts suggest the following reasons behind the conflict between the
central government and Adzharia.
First, seeking to regain territorial integrity, Georgia does not
recognise the Adzharian government.
Second, Georgia is set to have the Russian bases pulled out from its
territory (from Batumi and Akhalkalaki) and Russian peacekeepers from
Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Tbilisi believes tensions will help it
achieve this objective.
Three, Tbilisi believes Adzharia has grown too independent
economically and politically. The republic, for example, refused to
pay taxes to the central budget, pleading Georgia’s indebtedness to
Four, the Georgian economy being in dire straits, Tbilisi is seeking
control over the Batumi port to ensure economic revival.
Five, the unnecessary unification of Georgia, Abkhazia, Adzharia and
South Ossetia caused the savage ethnic conflicts in the 1990s.
Russia helped deter a conflict around Adzharia. Moscow Mayor Yury
Luzhkov also made his contribution as a mediator. The Georgian and
Adzharian leaders reached a series of agreements through Mr.
Luzhkov’s mediation. As a result, the central government lifted
economic sanctions against the autonomy, while the latter ended the
state of emergency.
However, the conflict has not been resolved completely and it can
restart any moment.